hadoop开启Service Level Authorization 服务级认证

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背景描述

  最近在进行安全扫描的后后,说hadoop地处漏洞,Hadoop 未授权访问【原理扫描】,有后后就参考官方文档及或多或少资料,在测试环境中进行了开启,里边就遇到了什么都有有有的坑,不可能 说买车人越来越想明白的问题报告 报告 ,在此记录下吧,你这个 问题报告 报告 搞了2天。

环境描述

  hadoop版本:2.6.2

操作步骤

1.不想开启服务级认证,还能能在core-site.xml文件中开启参数hadoop.security.authorization,将其设置为true

<property>
  <name>hadoop.security.authorization</name>
  <value>true</value>
  <description>Is service-level authorization enabled?</description>
</property>

备注:根据官方文档的解释,设置为true要是simple类型的认证,基于OS用户的认证.现在服务级的认证不可能 开启了。

增加此参数后后,还能能重启namenode:

sbin/hadoop-daemon.sh stop namenode
sbin/hadoop-daemon.sh start namenode

怎样知道与非 真正的开启了该配置,查看hadoop安全日志SecurityAuth-aiprd.audit,不可能 有新日志增加,里边饱含认证信息,说明开启成功。

2.针对具体的各个服务的认证,在配置文件hadoop-policy.xml中

<configuration>
  <property>
    <name>security.client.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for ClientProtocol, which is used by user code
    via the DistributedFileSystem.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.client.datanode.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for ClientDatanodeProtocol, the client-to-datanode protocol
    for block recovery.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.datanode.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for DatanodeProtocol, which is used by datanodes to
    communicate with the namenode.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.inter.datanode.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for InterDatanodeProtocol, the inter-datanode protocol
    for updating generation timestamp.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.namenode.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for NamenodeProtocol, the protocol used by the secondary
    namenode to communicate with the namenode.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

 <property>
    <name>security.admin.operations.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for AdminOperationsProtocol. Used for admin commands.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.refresh.user.mappings.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for RefreshUserMappingsProtocol. Used to refresh
    users mappings. The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and
    group names. The user and group list is separated by a blank. For
    e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".  A special value of "*" means all
    users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.refresh.policy.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for RefreshAuthorizationPolicyProtocol, used by the
    dfsadmin and mradmin commands to refresh the security policy in-effect.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.ha.service.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for HAService protocol used by HAAdmin to manage the
      active and stand-by states of namenode.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.zkfc.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for access to the ZK Failover Controller
    </description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.qjournal.service.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for QJournalProtocol, used by the NN to communicate with
    JNs when using the QuorumJournalManager for edit logs.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.mrhs.client.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for HSClientProtocol, used by job clients to
    communciate with the MR History Server job status etc. 
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <!-- YARN Protocols -->

  <property>
    <name>security.resourcetracker.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for ResourceTrackerProtocol, used by the
    ResourceManager and NodeManager to communicate with each other.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.resourcemanager-administration.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for ResourceManagerAdministrationProtocol, for admin commands. 
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.applicationclient.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for ApplicationClientProtocol, used by the ResourceManager 
    and applications submission clients to communicate with each other.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.applicationmaster.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for ApplicationMasterProtocol, used by the ResourceManager 
    and ApplicationMasters to communicate with each other.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.containermanagement.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for ContainerManagementProtocol protocol, used by the NodeManager 
    and ApplicationMasters to communicate with each other.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.resourcelocalizer.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for ResourceLocalizer protocol, used by the NodeManager 
    and ResourceLocalizer to communicate with each other.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.job.task.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for TaskUmbilicalProtocol, used by the map and reduce
    tasks to communicate with the parent tasktracker.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.job.client.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for MRClientProtocol, used by job clients to
    communciate with the MR ApplicationMaster to query job status etc. 
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.applicationhistory.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for ApplicationHistoryProtocol, used by the timeline
    server and the generic history service client to communicate with each other.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>
</configuration>

备注:默认有10个服务,每个服务的默认值全部都是*,表示的要是任何的用户都还能能对其进行访问。

3.目前只还能能针对客户端哪几个用户也能访问namenode即可,即修改参数security.client.protocol.acl的值

  <property>
    <name>security.zkfc.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>aiprd</value>
    <description>ACL for access to the ZK Failover Controller
    </description>
  </property>

备注:表示客户端进行对应的用户是aiprd的就还能能访问namenode。

刷新ACL配置:

bin/hdfs dfsadmin -refreshServiceAcl

修改格式如下:

<property>
     <name>security.job.submission.protocol.acl</name>
     <value>user1,user2 group1,group2</value>
</property>

备注:该值是,用户之间逗号隔开,用户组之间用逗号隔开,用户和用户组之间用空格分开,不可能 越来越用户,要以空格开头里边接用户组。

4.远程客户端访问hdfs中文件进行验证

[aiprd@localhost ~]$ hdfs dfs -ls hdfs://hadoop1:9000/
Found 10 items
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 04:31 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/hbase
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  hadoop              0 2019-08-14 06:40 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test01
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 06:22 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test02
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:39 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test03
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 06:60

 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test07
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 06:31 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test08
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 06:32 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test09
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 06:41 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test10
drwxrwx---   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 07:06 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test11
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd1 supergroup          0 2019-08-15 00:10 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12

备注:在客户端上,将hadoop的线程部署在aiprd用户下,执行命令也能查看其中的文件、文件夹信息。并肩,aiprd用户也是启动namenode的用户即hadoop中的超级用户,什么都有有有,查看到的文件的用户组全部都是aiprd.

5.测试,不可能 增加不可能 使用或多或少的用户与非 还能能

  <property>
    <name>security.zkfc.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>aiprd1</value>
    <description>ACL for access to the ZK Failover Controller
    </description>
  </property>

刷新ACL配置。

bin/hdfs dfsadmin -refreshServiceAcl

将用户修改aiprd1。即必须客户端的线程用户是aiprd1也能访问。

6.在客户端中,继续使用后后部署在aiprd用户下的hadoop客户端进行访问

[aiprd@localhost ~]$ hdfs dfs -ls hdfs://hadoop1:9000/
ls: User aiprd (auth:SIMPLE) is not authorized for protocol interface org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.ClientProtocol, expected client Kerberos principal is null

备注:发现aiprd用户是必须访问的了

7.客户端中,在aiprd1用户下,在部署hadoop客户端,有后后进行访问

[aiprd1@localhost ~]$ hdfs dfs -ls hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12
Found 6 items
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:43 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/01
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:43 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/02
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:43 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/03
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:44 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/04
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:49 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/05
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd1 supergroup          0 2019-08-15 00:10 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/10

备注:是也能访问的,什么都有有有,不可能 要使用用户来进行认证,越来越客户端线程对应的OS用户,还能能要和hadoop-policy.xml中配置的用户一致有后后必须访问。

既然,服务级参数的值,还能能是用户,也还能能是用户组,用户验证完了,越来越来验证用户组吧,此时,就遇到了什么都有有有的坑。

1.还是后后的参数security.zkfc.protocol.acl,这次使用,用户组

  <property>
    <name>security.zkfc.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>aiprd hadoop</value>
    <description>ACL for access to the ZK Failover Controller
    </description>
  </property>

刷新ACL配置:

/bin/hdfs dfsadmin -refreshServiceAcl

越来越问题报告 报告 来了,后后的用户是基于OS级别的判断,你这个 应该也是,也要是判断我你这个 用户到底是全部都是你这个 用户组里边的。

2.在客户端上aiprd用户下的线程是还能能访问的,经过后后的验证越来越问题报告 报告

3.在客户端上,在aiprd1下部署hadoop客户端线程,正常是访问不了hdfs的,越来越将aiprd1加入到你这个 hadoop组下,理论上是还能能访问的

[aiprd1@localhost ~]$ id aiprd1
uid=60

1(aiprd1) gid=60

1(aiprd1) groups=60

1(aiprd1),60

2(hadoop)
[aiprd1@localhost ~]$ hdfs dfs -ls hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12
ls: User aiprd1 (auth:SIMPLE) is not authorized for protocol interface org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.ClientProtocol, expected client Kerberos principal is null

经过验证,是不还能能的,说明你这个 hadoop分组并越来越起作用。

试了如下的土依据:

  • --1.hadoop.security.group.mapping 改了你这个 参数的值,虽然你这个 参数有默认的值,必须进行设置的
  • --2.在hdfs所有的节点都建了hadoop用户组,还是越来越正确处理问题报告 报告
  • --3.默认的hdfs中文件的用户组是supergroup,也尝试将aiprd1加入到supergroup中,还是越来越作用
  • --4.使用aiprd你这个 超级用户,将hdfs中文件的用户组改为hadoop还是越来越效果
  • --5.尝试在namenode上将aiprd加入到hadoop组还是越来越效果。

虽然越来越土依据,开启DEBUG吧,开启后后,获得信息如下:

2019-08-15 15:12:27,188 WARN org.apache.hadoop.security.ShellBasedUnixGroupsMapping: got exception trying to get groups for user aiprd1: id: aiprd1: No such user

2019-08-15 15:12:27,188 WARN org.apache.hadoop.security.UserGroupInformation: No groups available for user aiprd1
adoop.hdfs.protocol.ClientProtocol, expected client Kerberos principal is null
:SIMPLE)
2019-08-15 15:12:27,188 DEBUG org.apache.hadoop.ipc.Server: Socket Reader #1 for port 9000: responding to null from 192.168.60

.1:61985 Call#-3 Retry#-1
2019-08-15 15:12:27,188 DEBUG org.apache.hadoop.ipc.Server: Socket Reader #1 for port 9000: responding to null from 192.168.60

.1:61985 Call#-3 Retry#-1 Wrote 243 bytes.
izationException: User aiprd1 (auth:SIMPLE) is not authorized for protocol interface 

意思是说,当试着为你这个 用户查找用户组的后后,越来越你这个 用户,就很奇怪,明明是有用户的啊。有后后就基于你这个 报错各种查找,有后后在下面的文章中获得了点启示:

https://www.e-learn.cn/content/wangluowenzhang/1136832
To accomplish your goal you'd need to add your user account (clott) on the NameNode machine and add it to hadoop group there.

If you are going to run MapReduce with your user, you'd need your user account to be configured on NodeManager hosts as well.

4.按照你这个 意思,在Namenode节点上,创建aiprd1用户,并加入到hadoop用户组里边。

[root@hadoop1 ~]# useradd -G hadoop aiprd1
[root@hadoop1 ~]# id aiprd1
uid=60

3(aiprd1) gid=60

3(aiprd1) groups=60

3(aiprd1),60

2(hadoop)
[root@hadoop1 ~]# su - aiprd
[aiprd@hadoop1 ~]$ jps
15289 NameNode
15644 Jps

备注:此节点运行了NameNode.

5.再次在hadoop客户端上,aiprd1用户下执行查询操作

[aiprd1@localhost ~]$ hdfs dfs -ls hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12
Found 6 items
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:43 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/01
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:43 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/02
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:43 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/03
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:44 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/04
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:49 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/05
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd1 supergroup          0 2019-08-15 00:10 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/10

还能能进行查询了。

在客户端上,将aiprd1对应的用户组hadoop再加。

[aiprd1@localhost ~]$ id
uid=60

1(aiprd1) gid=60

1(aiprd1) groups=60

1(aiprd1)

再次执行查询:

[aiprd1@localhost ~]$ hdfs dfs -ls hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12
Found 6 items
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:43 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/01
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:43 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/02
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:43 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/03
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:44 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/04
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:49 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/05
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd1 supergroup          0 2019-08-15 00:10 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/10

还是还能能查询的,还能能看出来,用户组和客户端上用户所在的组越来越关系,还能能在Namenode节点设置。

查看官方,有如下解释:

Once a username has been determined as described above, the list of groups is determined by a group mapping service, configured by the hadoop.security.group.mapping property. The default implementation, org.apache.hadoop.security.JniBasedUnixGroupsMappingWithFallback, will determine if the Java Native Interface (JNI) is available. If JNI is available, the implementation will use the API within hadoop to resolve a list of groups for a user. If JNI is not available then the shell implementation, org.apache.hadoop.security.ShellBasedUnixGroupsMapping, is used. This implementation shells out with the bash -c groups command (for a Linux/Unix environment) or the net group command (for a Windows environment) to resolve a list of groups for a user.

An alternate implementation, which connects directly to an LDAP server to resolve the list of groups, is available via org.apache.hadoop.security.LdapGroupsMapping. However, this provider should only be used if the required groups reside exclusively in LDAP, and are not materialized on the Unix servers. More information on configuring the group mapping service is available in the Javadocs.

For HDFS, the mapping of users to groups is performed on the NameNode. Thus, the host system configuration of the NameNode determines the group mappings for the users.

Note that HDFS stores the user and group of a file or directory as strings; there is no conversion from user and group identity numbers as is conventional in Unix.

对于HDFS来说,用户到组的映射关系是在NameNode上执行的,有后后,NameNode的主机系统配置决定了用户组的映射。

实验后后才看明白,后后根本越来越理解,以为是从客户端拿到用户对应的用户组信息,有后后到NameNode来进行判断呢。

什么都有有有,到这里,基于服务级的ACL,用户、用户组的全部都是可能 还能能配置了,对于或多或少的服务,还能能根据实际状况进行配置。这里边要是求哪几个用户、用户组还能能连接上来就好了。

小结

  1.hadoop.security.authorization设置为true,开启simple认证,即基于os用户的认证,配置后后,重启namenode

  2.acl为用户认证的,保证服务acl中配置的值与客户端线程对应的用户一致即可访问。

  3.acl为用户组的,客户端不可能 使用A访问,越来越要在NameNode上创建用户A,将A加入到acl用户组,验证过程:获取客户端的用户,比如为A,NameNode节点上,通过用户A,到NameNode的主机上来查找用户A对应的用户组信息,不可能 NameNode上越来越用户A,认证失败,不可能 有用户A,越来越在acl用户组上,认证失败,有用户A,用户A在acl配置的组里边,认证成功。

  4.acl配置的用户组与客户端线程用户,所在的用户组越来越关系。

  5.每次修改hadoop-policy.xml中的值,记得要执行刷新操作。

另外:要注意,不同版本的参数,配置不可能 不同,要看和买车人hadoop版本一致的文档。

https://hadoop.apache.org/docs/r2.6.2/hadoop-project-dist/hadoop-common/ServiceLevelAuth.html

 https://hadoop.apache.org/docs/r2.6.2/hadoop-project-dist/hadoop-hdfs/HdfsPermissionsGuide.html#Group_Mapping

文档创建时间:2019年8月15日17:60 :24